Development of a proper and justifiable theoretical framework is the first important step that a policy maker will adapt in order to design a particular public health policy. This is important in the sense that it will lead the policy makers to summarize all the important pros and cons that would be faced during the implementation thereby making the policy makers aware of the challenges and the demands that the situation requires. Moreover creating a theoretical framework also helps in the establishment of the clear motives and aims that would lead to a successful policy, including all necessary steps and actions and excluding any negative aspects that may help in the benefit of public. In such a scenario, policy making for the family and domestic violence in Australia also would require a theoretical framework that would result in holding this concerns faced by the victims and proper implementation of laws and legislatures fir successful inhibition, making people educated enough to handle situation more maturely (Anfara & Martz, 2014).
Theoretical framework and application:
While designing the theoretical framework for the increasing family and domestic violence all over Australia, the first step would be to recognize the perpetrator and the victims and thereby understand the various kinds of violence and the dominancy that can be seen in every case. Recognizing the level and the extreme extent of violence that can occur in every of the cases, a proper monitoring system has to be developed along with proper categorization and the levels in which each of the cases has to be assigned (Dunn, 2015). A general policy for all the victims is not benefitting in the sense because it judges all the cases from the same sense of importance irrespective of the level of violence. Therefore, it is indeed importance that policies should be prepared aiming the growing complicacies of different cases (Sabatier & Weible, 2014). Proper punishments or counseling (in case of complicated cases) of the perpetrators are also should be inculcated. The next important criteria is that proper governing Medias should be included such as proper police forces posted on emergency situations can perform their duties well, proper formation of emergency helpline in order to prevent violence and harm from perpetrators. Another important arena that should be covered during frame working the policies are the proper arrangement of the shelter homes and social communities that would act as the shelter places for the victims and also help them to come out of depression, shocks and fear (Kettner, Moroney & Martin, 2016). Councilors should be appointed who would help the victims to come out from these incidences and start life afresh. Another thing that the policy can include is to provide small jobs to the victims so that they can support them financially and help them to achieve back their self-respect (Lin, 2012). This framework is believed to cover all the aspects of FDV that when implemented into a policy can be believed to bring out a successful and overall acceptance leading to the benefit of the Australians. Proper conductance of surveys for the correct reporting of the cases is mandatory (Larkin, Felitti & Andra, 2014)
Identification of existing policies:
Out of the various policies, that government has published in the recent years the one that has garnered attention is the ‘The National plan to reduce Violence against women and Children’ that has been conducted with a plan for 2011 to 2022. Another policy introduced by department of prime minister and cabinet is also seen to cover a wide array of different aspects of family and domestic violence and treating the victims from the grass root of the cause and wide advantages for the victims who faced family violence (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australia, 2016). ‘Family and Domestic violence strategy plan’ has been conducted by the department of human services with several aims to reduce FDV with a plan from 2016 to 2019. Western Australia Strategic plan has been implemented by the government of Western Australia that looks solely over the protection of children and intimate partners who had been seen to be most prone to get effected from FDV. This is introduced with a planning of 2009 to 2013 and has been reintroduced.
Identification of Stakeholder’s groups:
In the different policies that had been implemented in the FDV, cases a variety of stakeholders have been found to be involved. Apart from the victims starting from children, women, elders of the households etc. and the perpetrators, health care professionals, social workers arranging the communities, ministers and policy makers also take active part from the benefit of the nation and thereby reduce the frequency of violence (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australia, 2016). The police department along with ministers involved in the public health domain have shown much interest over the issue and taken active holds of the cases reported. Counselors involved in the development of mental stability of both the victim and the perpetrators appointed by the different agencies and social communities do commendable jobs, which are praiseworthy. All of them have to been found as effective stakeholders involved in active participation for making Australia a violence free nation.
Identification of political contexts:
From the various policies mentioned above, one can have a clear idea about the interest of the ministers in developing a violence free nation. In the policy given from the government of Western Australia , one can see how the Minister for child protection and community services namely Robyn McSweety have helped in providing strategic plans for the protection of violence over children and intimate partners gaining appreciation from the entire Western Australia helping in her political career as well (Western Australian Government, 2016). A proper establishment of a policy that would save the victims would not only provide benefit t nation but can also assure certain position of Ministers to be assured by the voters due to their success in preventing FDV. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet as well as social services and Human services have productive ministers giving away their best approach for the proper implementation of the effective policies.
Summary of the policies:
The policy produced by the Department of Prime Minister and the Cabinet mainly has included their own employees working under this sector an takes care to protect their employees from FDV and also prepare safe environments for victims so that they can stabilize themselves and prepare an environment suitable for their recovery. It has included emotional, verbal, sexual, social, economic, psychological, spiritual and physical abuse that not only affects individuals at a personal level but also affects the workplace (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australia, 2016). As a result, this policy has taken steps to empower individuals with variety of financial, social and mental support from the managerial level as well as for the colleagues in every ways possible even by providing money and mobile phones on loan and keeping restrooms for them as well as for their children. Leave arrangements, advance payment of salary, flexible shifts and working arrangements, short or long-term relocation of the victims to another office of PM&C office are several options provided to them. The National Level to reduce Violence against Women and Children was conducted through two stages first by the introduction of First Action plan that involved the foundation of a national level structure to provide with policy and service delivery for the future and to educate the community to reduce violence against women and children. It included Australia’s National Research Organization for Women’s Safety (ANROWS) , Our WATCh and The Line social marketing campaign. The second action plan included 5 important priorities such as driving whole community action to reduce violence, invigilating various types if cases of violence, introducing innovative systems and services to reduce the incidences, allow perpetrators interventions and continue collecting evidence bases in order for successful implementation of the policies ("Domestic and Family Violence factsheet | Department of Social Services, Australian Government", 2016). The policy given by Western Australian government are based on certain basic principles about violation of human right, community handling of issues, safety management and assurance, effective acknowledgement for proper maintenance of equity on gender, creed and caste etc. They also have unique policies for children to save them from the pressures of violence (Western Australian Government, 2016). The policy given by the Human services department looks over FDV helps the nation by active responsibly, providing support to the victims and their families, responding to them respectfully and including a collaborative approach for the proper guidance and maintenance of the cases and revival for the victims ("Family and domestic violence - Australian Government Department of Human Services", 2016).
Explanation of effectiveness and evaluation of the policies:
The policy produced by the department of Prime minister and cabinet have put forward principles that they have been found to have been fulfilled by them through a large number of different strategies which are not only well processed but also helps victims in every aspects not only mentally but also at a physical and financial level (Chapell & Curtin, 2013). The large number of varieties of help lines provided had made the ways easier by which victims can seek for help (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australia, 2016). The various strategies of loans and various types of supports provided from the managerial levels such as allowances of various kinds has indeed effected in providing a workplace environment protective of the victims facing serious troubles in their personal troubles make the victims strong enough to face the adverse situations with courage and come out victorious. The plans given by the department of Social services has helped the nation to ensure the proper monitoring and reporting of cases of violence that has in turn been seen to reduce the prevalence of FDV ("Domestic and Family Violence factsheet | Department of Social Services, Australian Government", 2016). It has also committed to evaluate the planning of the policy on terms of the effectiveness and efficacy. Moreover, it had also ensured significant reduction of violence within the year 2022. The policy given by western Australia was evaluated with a n effective results in the fields of the performance indicator data such as the number of cases reported, police orders issued, perpetrators charges and others. Integrated interagency response has been found to be satisfactory on the associated outcomes. The Australian Bureau of Statistics Personal safety Survey also showed the number of reported cases to have reduced in Western Australia (Roberts, Chamberlain & Delfabbro, 2015).
Current policy Impact on equity, social justice and social determinants:
Though the policy from prime ministerial department show equity in managing the victims on the basis if caste, creed religion and gender, however other policies although demand to be taking initiatives for the entire family members if any one faces violence, but specifically aims at protecting women and children. However, it is a fact that as the women and children are more vulnerable to abuses yet, policies for older citizens’ abuses were found no mention (Valentine & Breckenridge, 2016). On the basis of caste and creed, equal laws and help lines are provide even to aboriginal and Non aborigines that show that policies are indeed effective as the provider of equal contribution to protect them from social injustice. Apart from the gender biasness with more preference in saving children and women policies were found to be more or less based on social justice and social determinants (Cross et al., 2012).
Tensions and Alliances within the stakeholder groups:
In order to discuss the various alliances, one must understand the importance of alliances among different stakeholder groups. For conducting the policies properly, a healthy alliance between the minister, policy makers, health professionals, counselors and the social workers are indeed necessary for the proper implementation of the policies (Fisher et al., 2016). However, unhealthy alliances between the perpetrators and the police authority or even members of the legislation and laws can result in bailing of the perpetrators that may increase the hardship on the victims and can be recognized as negative aspects of these alliances. Theses also give rise to several tensions among other stakeholders such as the victims and perpetrators. It often reflects in the victims’ minds that as the perpetrators are gaining bail every time, she also loses confidence on the laws and cases stop reporting abuses on her. Those, sometimes in many cases the victims do not only report violence against them because of emotional attachment with the perpetrators and love for them that make them tolerate negligence and dominancy from the perpetrators. However, all these lead to unreported cases which in turn results in inefficiency on producing an effective plan for prevention of FDV and filing charges against perpetrators (Gilbert et al., 2012).
Evidences of the benefits of policy Alternatives:
In order to cut out the various tensions, a proper monitoring authority is very much important to be included in the policy so that any kind of corruptions and unethical behaviors can be totally excluded. This needs strong vigilance over each stakeholder involved so that the problems can be totally removed from grass root level. Care should be also made to make the victims confident to report every kind of abuses to the government so that the government can have the chances to alter the policies in favour of the victims (Fisher, 2013). Education should be made an important criteria in the country through various workshops and advertisements so that the women get knowledge about the policies and how to take the help of the policies to make their lives secure of themselves or of any victims around her. All these aspects should be included in a policy so that the recent concerns mentioned can also be included in the discussion arenas and can be included. An alternative strategy having proper reporting of cases, good monitoring system, educating people of the ill effects and many others should also be included (Baird et al., 2014). Moreover another important criteria is the handling of each and every case with the perfect level of importance and sensitivity as per the demand of the cases because each and every case are different from each other and requires difference in urgency and different treatments. Therefore, case specific policies are important after partitioning the cases into different categories depending upon definite requirements and significance (Pain, 2014).
Potential impact of the alternative policy on public health principles:
The alternative policy that is designed including the loopholes present in the reviewed articles of the government would help to remove the tensions and the unethical and corrupted alliances between the stakeholders thereby providing policies that would ultimately help in establishing future that would be safe for every individuals irrespective of the caste , creed and the religions. The monitoring systems would thereby help to maintain a clean system that would reduce the levels FDV on the victims (Moser, 2012). Proper reporting of cases would help to produce statistical data that would help to analyze the policies both on the quantitative and qualitative results obtained from the policies and thereby course our future proposals and planning in the different regions of Australia.
From analyzing the various policies put forward by the governments, one can easily analyses the features and positive aspects of the policies. However, it can well be understood that preparing a theoretical framework can act as a consort or a checklist which will help us to pinpoint the aspects that are missing and should be inculcated in the policies. In such cases, alternative policies are also found to be a good aid in solving the negative issues and prepare policies that would in turn create an environment in Australia safe from family and domestic violence.
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